Water scarcity is undoubtedly one of the key issues facing the world today. Research published last year in Science Advances concluded that four billion people worldwide (two-thirds of the global population) are affected by severe water scarcity for at least one month of the year. What does this mean? Nearly a billion people currently have no access to clean, safe drinking water. And this shortage doesn’t only affect rural areas. While urban areas are more likely to have water-supply networks, increasing urbanization in both emerging and advanced nations is straining water supply. And the problem is likely to worsen: a United Nations report predicted that by 2030, global water demand will outstrip supply by 40%.
Connecting the water grid to smart-city infrastructure
A smart city is often described as a “system of systems,” where the Internet of Things (IoT) and analytics converge with traditional infrastructure, buildings, and 24/7 operations. Smart cities use IoT and analytics capabilities to reach operational efficiency and improve service levels, sustainability, and economic vitality. In other words, in a smart city, previously siloed sectors such as power, transport, emergency management, and water all work in sync.
While cities around the world have made significant strides in digitizing other areas of infrastructure, including transport and energy, most have yet to connect their water supplies to their smart-city strategies and systems. But the existing threat of scarcity— and the knowledge that it will get worse—should push more cities toward smart water–management systems. In many cases, such digital technologies have real potential to transform the way cities manage water by reducing water loss and improving efficiency, water conservation, and customer service.
Smart water–management systems accomplish these goals by increasing network visibility, facilitating predictive maintenance, and ensuring faster response times for events such as leaks, bursts, operational failures, quality incidents, and changes in water pressure.
Israel is an example of how water technology can revolutionize the sector. The country’s developments in this area were highlighted in a recent study by the World Bank Group, which noted, “In recent years, with the advent of information and communications technologies, many high-technology concepts have penetrated the [Israeli] water sector, such as algorithm-based leak detection and cloud-based fixed leak detection.”Israel used to be one of the world’s most water-stressed countries, but as a direct result of technology-enabled water management, it is now actually selling water to its neighbors.
When it comes to operational changes, the water industry is known to be conservative, slow, and risk averse. This reluctance partly stems from the non-competitive nature of the water industry, among other factors. Too often, utilities only address shortages when a crisis hits. And although some regulators are beginning to push utilities toward improved customer-service practices, many still fail to put the customer and efficiency at the center.
However, digital water-management tools represent a paradigm shift for the water industry from being reactive to being proactive and optimized. This shift is analogous to the adoption of customer relationship management (CRM) technology within retail industries such as banking and mobile phones—which completely revolutionized the way those companies deal with customers.
Water utilities recognize that water is a crucial commodity and are beginning to harness the vast quantity of network data available to improve customer service, reduce water loss, and improve water efficiency. Looking forward, utilities can more efficiently serve their customers through better business decisions influenced by this data and uncover ways to connect to other systems—traffic, energy, and so forth—that are sprouting up in increasingly smarter cities.